With the assistance of the center’s staff, he was able to state his findings and conclusions in a crisp and clear style that communicated well to both practitioners and academics. Consultation can provide conceptual and practical assistance in designing the adoption or change effort efficiently and can offer useful objectivity about. Interactions between researchers and policy makers can facilitate disaster management. that required facilities to systematically identify potential accidents and develop the means to prevent the accidents or mitigate their effects (Skinner et al., 1991). This team works together over the course of training development. The literature on dissemination and knowledge utilization spans a number of disciplines, including the fields of rehabilitation, education, sociology, psychology, and marketing. While Drabek frequently presented his research conclusions at both professional sociological and social science association meetings, he also made presentations at national, regional and state emergency management conferences. The Knowledge Dissemination System (KDS) is a set of methodology and technology tools that helps coordinate the processes of management and exchange of knowledge in the oil exploration and production processes within the Gazprom Neft Group to solve technological and operational problems. The workshop program is designed to be less formal than a professional conference and is intentionally organized to span research-practitioner boundaries and to encourage networking and information sharing. This web-based resource is a self-inventory tool designed to help researchers identify and reach the intended end users of research, and facilitate their use of research. Given the emphasis on knowledge dissemination and application in funding applications, it is critical for researchers to use an approach focused on the end-user. The four agencies in the program—National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which is currently the lead agency, FEMA, the U.S. Geological Suryve (USGS), and NSF—are expected to work collaboratively with each other as well as with other stakeholders to achieve this objective. Typically 28 pages in length, the Observer features invited comments from disaster experts and practitioners, as well as timely information on meetings, conferences, web resources, pending legislation, research and government reports, and grant awards. Explicit Knowledge Sharing and IT. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) staff agreed and asked Drabek to tackle the problem. Threat conditions may be assigned for the entire nation, or they may be set for a particular geographic area or industrial sector. Stakeholders who will have to live with the results of the adoption process need to be involved in planning for adoption, both to obtain suggestions for how to undertake the adoption effectively and to facilitate ownership of the new program or activity, thus decreasing resistance to change. This principle was strongly confirmed by practitioners who participated in the committee’s workshops. Furthermore, as illustrated in Table 8.1, there are now numerous brokers of social science hazards and disaster information, including individual researchers as well as outreach and dissemination programs in government, academia and civil society. SCEPP was provided with necessary resources, had allies that championed its cause, and met with little external resistance. The importance of social interaction between researchers and potential users came through strongly in these case studies in explaining the extent of research utilization. Recommendation 8.1: Renewed attention should be given by the social science hazards and disaster research community to the need for formal evaluation research on knowledge utilization in the field. This interaction was important regardless of whether the project dealt with engineering, physical science, or social science issues (Yin and Moore, 1985:vi). Two core missions of the center relate directly to knowledge transfer: To disseminate findings to the research community and to practitioners so they can use this knowledge to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Other dissemination research has identified four functional types of dissemination: Spread, which is defined as “the one-way diffusion or distribution of information;”, Choice, a process that “actively helps users seek and acquire alternative sources of information and learn about their options;”, Exchange, which “involves interactions between people and the multidirectional flow of information;” and. the dissemination source—that is, the agency, organization, or individual responsible for creating the new knowledge or product, and/or for conducting dissemination activities; the content or message that is disseminated—that is, the new knowledge or product itself, as … Like his many other efforts, this has brought the work of disaster sociologists to large audiences who might otherwise have never learned of them. Previous chapters of this report have documented the contributions that social scientists have made to understanding hazards and disasters of various types. The integrated knowledge management cycle, proposed by Kimiz Dalkir, Ph.D., combines several of the concepts we’ve discussed into one general framework. NHRAIC approves small grant proposals for quick-response research on an annual basis. Toward a communicative perspective of collaborating in research: the case of the researcher-decision-maker partnership. emergency management public policy issues. This system became known as FIRESCOPE (Firefighting Resources of California Organized for Potential Emergencies). One of the social science case studies concerned a project conducted by the National Academy of Sciences during 1974 and 1975 on the potential social, economic, political, behavioral, and legal consequences of earthquake prediction. Cultivating Communities of Practice. Improving research dissemination and uptake in the health sector: beyond the sound of one hand clapping. This survey provided an important database for city officials. This paper reviews four well‐known knowledge dissemination techniques. Lomas provides a useful taxonomy of KT activities that groups them into three conceptually distinct types: diffusion, dissemination, and implementation. Through the Higher Education Program, FEMA works closely with the research community to develop standardized curricula on hazards and disasters. Report No. aftermath of a devastating wildfire in California. Some years ago a national study found that disaster management is very low on the agenda of city officials (Rossi et al., 1982). At each threat condition, the intention is for federal departments and agencies to implement a set of protective measures to reduce the nation’s vulnerability during the heightened alert. As noted, Yin and his colleagues (Yin and Moore, 1985; Yin and Andranovitch, 1987) carried out their important work on research utilization in the 1980s. These activities or programs were selected by the committee mainly because they involve rather significant attempts to further the dissemination and application of knowledge developed by social scientists. Piloting knowledge brokers to promote integrated stroke care in Atlantic Canada. Local practitioners noted that findings simply do not get disseminated to them and that they do not know where to go to obtain information. Second, more can be understood about the challenges of social science research utilization when they can be compared with the challenges facing disciplines such as earthquake engineering and earth science. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) (2004) notes that the development of the scale largely fails to reflect the expertise derived from risk communications and disaster warning research. As in the United States, some of the decisions made in other countries are science based, while others are not. the most appropriate organizational placement of emergency management responsibilities at the local government level; lessons learned in bureaucratic politics; success stories, obstacles overcome, and challenges met; and. We want to ensure that the research we fund has the maximum benefit for patients, the public and the NHS. Lomas J. Some communities can benefit from access to national experts who reside locally. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection; the Governor’s Office of Emergency Services; the Los Angeles, Ventura and Santa Barbara County fire departments; and the Los Angeles City Fire department joined with the U.S. Forest Service to develop the system. Health Policy 2005 Jan;71(1):117-25. It was developed over a two-year period during which the research team worked with villages in rural El Salvador, St. Lucia, Dominica, and the Dominican Republic. Reardon R, Lavis J, Gibson J. One of the goals of its Higher Education Program is to encourage and support the dissemination of information on hazards, disasters, and emergency management in colleges and universities across the United States. These brochures make recommendations on such topics as how to develop a family disaster plan, which is based on research findings from studies of evacuation behavior during disasters conducted by Perry and colleagues (1980). To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Minutes later, a tornado tore off the building’s roof and tossed cars into the screen and front seats where minutes earlier children and their parents had been watching a popular holiday movie. This means that ICS training must be consistent with the concepts, principles and characteristics of the ICS training offered by various DHS training entities. The activities and programs discussed in the previous section exemplify a commitment to using social science knowledge to improve decisions and actions related to disaster management. The knowledge is targeted to the wrong end-user or consumer. Underpinning earthquake risk-reduction efforts through NEHRP is the provision of technical assistance and research that develops new knowledge about (1) earthquake hazards; (2) the response of the natural, built, and social environments to those hazards; and (3) techniques to mitigate the hazards. While most disaster researchers would agree that the scale is not a warning system, much of what has been learned by disaster researchers on effective risk communication practices is largely ignored in the development of the system (NRC, 2002a). Explain the relationship between knowledge acquisition, knowledge processing, knowledge generation, knowledge dissemination, and wisdom. This involved a survey of 50 researchers and 28 practitioners (Mileti, 1999b; Fothergill, 2000). Content management systems are used to update, distribute, tag, and otherwise manage content. The strategy has included the dissemination of important hazard-related information to potential users through such means as workshops and conferences, the organization’s Web site, and various publications. Popkins and Rubin (2000) assessed user views of the Natural Hazards Center and concluded that it has been a vital information resource to both academic researchers and practitioners in the emergency management field, making information easily accessible to them. The HRL also conducts post-disaster studies (e.g., on Hurricane Floyd and the Graniteville, South Carolina, train derailment and chlorine release) and these findings are given to the state and local emergency responders to help improve disaster preparedness. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. First, social scientists have the methodological tools to carry out such research, perhaps even more so now than a generation ago. The City of Boulder, Colorado has a major potential for serious flash flooding. This system provides warnings in the form of a set of graduated “threat conditions” that increase as the risk of the threat advances. These tools did not exist when earlier research utilization studies were conducted. On a more practical note, the broader research literature enables some generalizations about the circumstances underlying successful knowledge utilization. Annual Review of Public Health 2000 May 12;21(1):369-402. In some cases, the exchange of ideas was facilitated by the activities sponsored by professional associations. Overall, communications started earlier than and continued far beyond the ending of a specific project. However, as discussed earlier, many barriers must be overcome before relevant knowledge from the social sciences as well as other disciplines becomes an important factor in what individuals and organizations do about the risks they face or are responsible for managing in cooperation with others, including the public. Dissemination of knowledge enable the existing knowledge to be accessible and exploited in order to apply it to solve specific tasks cheaply, faster, much better and finally perform better than rivals in … In 2004, the Natural Hazard Observer, published by the Natural Hazard Center at the University of Colorado, featured a series of articles that examined Disasters Waiting to Happen with the intent of generating a discussion about creative approaches to mitigation. Moreover, statistical and computational modeling of the research utilization process could lead to greater theoretical understanding and provide a firmer basis for improving future efforts. If the principles of research utilization are to be fully elaborated, research on negative cases is just as important as research on the more successful ones. Lyons R, Warner G, Langille L, Phillips SJ. VCU Health Administration. Several states actively engage social scientists while developing emergency planning strategies. During the outbreak, the Van Wert County emergency operations center received a NWS Tornado Warning via a NOAA Weather Radio receiver. to a lot of people: 2. the act of spreading…. Dobbins M, Robeson P, Ciliska D, Hanne S, Cameron R, O'Mara L, DeCorby K, Mercer S. A description of a knowledge broker role implemented as part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating three knowledge translation strategies. The library at EMI, with more than 100,000 publications, represents one of the major repositories of disaster research documents. Within the varied perspectives about knowledge dissemination and utilization, some combinations of the following four elements are considered in the literature: the dissemination source—that is, the agency, organization, or individual responsible for creating the new knowledge or product, and/or for conducting dissemination activities; the content or message that is disseminated—that is, the new knowledge or product itself, as well as any supporting information or materials; the dissemination medium—that is, the ways in which the knowledge or product is described, “packaged,” and transmitted; and. McLuckie (1974) developed a workbook and self-study course titled “Warning—A Call to Action,” which became an important tool for forecasters to improve the effectiveness of their warnings. These and other examples of the promotion of knowledge application are discussed at length later in this chapter. Finally, cross-cultural studies on research utilization, involving social science or other kinds of knowledge related to hazards and disasters, would provide an opportunity for the collaborative international research called for in Chapter 6. Further, no overview of the literature on dissemination strategies aimed at healthcare users and their caregivers has been conducted. Wenger E, McDermott R, Snyder WM. together researchers, public and private sector practitioners, agency officials, and students for discussions of research, educational, and policy issues. White and one of his former students, Eve Gruntfest, have worked over the years with city officials to develop a comprehensive floodplain management plan for Boulder Creek and its tributaries. Implementation Science. Practitioners attending the committee’s workshops expressed similar perspectives on the dissemination problem, attributing the lack of use of research knowledge to factors such as the following: Information is not easy to digest and understand. Examples point to researchers who work with federal agencies to ensure that the results of their studies are incorporated into policies, planning guides, and training activities. This list is not intended to be exhaustive; rather, it is a capsule of the larger knowledge delivery system in the hazards and disaster field. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 2003 Oct 2;8:58-61. A study by Lambright (1984) considered the policy role played by the Southern California Earthquake Preparedness Project (SCEPP), a regional organization that emerged with government support to play a leadership role in earthquake preparedness in California. Interpersonal contact. Over the years, workshop attendance has grown to well over 300 participants. Without systematic assessment data on the efforts and initiatives discussed here, it is not possible to be very precise about how successful many of them have been, which again reflects the great need for more research on knowledge utilization. Disseminating Information on disseminate Lambright analyzed SCEPP’s origins and development, and drew conclusions about the program’s success in stimulating preparedness measures, including those that were science based, for a predicted or unpredicted earthquake. At times the above phrases are carefully defined to characterize a narrow process, and at other times they are used interchangeably. This volume summarizes key findings and conclusions from sociological studies completed during the past 10 years. It facilitated the rapid dissemination of research findings. Many translated example sentences containing "knowledge dissemination" – Spanish-English dictionary and search engine for Spanish translations. Additionally, hundreds of thousands of individuals use EMI distance learning programs, such as the Independent Study Program. How to use disseminate in a sentence. None reported using mainstream or specialty academic journals. systematic reviews that examine the effectiveness and efficiency of dissemination strategies targeted at health professionals; systematic reviews of studies that focus ion factors that influence evidence use in policy making), Messages should be clear, simple, action-oriented and tailored for each audience (i.e. This application is significant because families with written emergency plans are more likely to engage in protective behaviors when confronted by a disaster. Anecdotal evidence about the way findings have been utilized by the practitioner community is fairly commonplace. Not a MyNAP member yet? As noted by John Knight, director of risk assessment for the South Carolina Emergency Management Division (University of South Carolina Research, 2005): It’s been helpful to have a reliable source like USC for so much of the information we use,” Knight said. In such cases, placement was decided on the basis of the major characteristics of the programs or activities. The guide takes into consideration both the social and the behavioral context of the lives of those at risk. 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