Colombia - Colombia - The era of the Liberals, 1930–46: In addition, the Liberals came to power because of popular opposition to Conservatives’ use of the army against labour unions in the banana industry and because of the lack of unity in the Conservative Party itself.  Stephen Haber, âThe Political Economy of Industrialization,â in Victor Bulmer-Thomas, John Coatsworth, and Roberto Cortes-Conde, eds., The Cambridge Economic History of Latin America (2 vols., New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 2:Â 537-584. AndrÃ© A. Hoffman, Long Run Economic Development in Latin America in a Comparative Perspective: Proximate and Ultimate Causes (Santiago, Chile: CEPAL, 2001), p. 19. , Despite obstacles to industrialization in the early post-independence period, cotton textiles produced in factories owned by Mexicans date from the 1830s in the central region. Hernán Cortés understood the strategic and symbolic importance of the Aztec capital, founded the Spanish capital of Mexico City on the site, and in particular rebuilt the Aztec ceremonial and political center as the main square, the Plaza Mayor, usually called the Zócalo. Since the population of Mexico under Spanish rule was at most 6 million people by the end of the colonial period, the kingdomâs silver output could only be considered astronomical. That must be true at some level, although recent studies (especially by Sandra Kuntz) have raised important qualifications. The effects of this movementâthe emigration of the Revolution in reverseâhas never been properly analyzed. A pact between former royalist officer AgustÃn de Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero unified under the Plan de Iguala and the Army of the Three Guarantees brought about Mexican independence in September 1821. Real per capital output was to decline by 8 percent in 1982.Â Forced to sharply devalue, the real exchange rate fell by 50 percent in 1982 and inflation approached 100 percent. The evolution of relative prices would have inevitably worked against the demanders of labor (Europeans and increasingly, creoles or Americans of largely European ancestry) and in favor of the supplier (native labor, or people of mixed race generically termed mestizo).  Central Mexico attracted a larger proportion of Spanish settlement and landed enterprises there shifted from mixed agriculture and ranching to solely agriculture. Such a lack of manpower influenced the decline of food products. Rather than hauling goods by carts drawn by oxen or mules, the most common mode of transporting goods was via pack mules. He recommended that the crown press for major changes in the agrarian sector, including the breakup of entailed estates, sale of common lands to individuals, and other instruments to make agriculture more profitable. The largest sector of the population was indigenous subsistence farmers, who lived mainly in the center and south. De 1780 a nuestros dÃas (MÃ©xico, DF: Fondo de Cultura EconÃ³mica, 2015). ), Los precios de alimentos y manufacturas novohispanos (MÃ©xico, DF: CIESAS, 1995), p. 206. The Church itself accrued tremendous wealth, aided by the fact that as a corporation, its holdings were not broken up to distribute to heirs.  Industry accounted for 22 percent of total output in 1950, 24 percent in 1960, and 29 percent in 1970.  It was also the result of an agrarian uprising and the insistent demand of Mexicoâs growing industrial proletariat for a share of political power. Any data we have prior to 1930 are problematic, and before 1895, strictly speaking, we have no official measures of output per capita at all. Easterlin, R. "Why Isn't the Whole World Developed? A Spanish intellectual Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos wrote a critique of the decline of Spain as an economic power in 1796 that contended the stagnation of Spanish agriculture was a major cause of Spain's economic problems. Real per capita output oscillated, sometimes sharply, around an underlying growth rate of perhaps one percent; changes in the distribution of income and wealth are more or less impossible to identify consistently, because studies conflict.  Teresa Rojas Rabiela and Ignacio GutiÃ©rrez Ruvalcaba, Cien ventanas a los paÃses de antaÃ±o: fotografÃas del campo mexicano de hace un siglo) (MÃ©xico, DF: CONACYT, 2013), pp. In the United States in particular, NAFTA is blamed for deindustrialization, although pressure on manufacturing, like trade liberalization itself, was underway long before NAFTA was negotiated. 349-380. The Mexican government could not count on revenues from silver mining to fund its operations. Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule. If we look at the âilliterateâ population, there was a consistent decline until 1850. Silver mining tended to absorb a disproportional quantity of resources and to keep New Spainâs price level high, even when the business cycle slowed downâa fact that was to impress visitors to Mexico well into the nineteenth century. This increase, sometimes labelled as a Bourbon âreconquestâ of Mexico after a century and a half of drift under the Hapsburgs, occurred because of Spainâs need to finance increasingly frequent and costly wars of empire in the eighteenth century.  Bernard Ortiz de Montellano, Aztec Medicine Health and Nutrition (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990). In 1862, frustrated by Mexicoâs suspension of foreign debt service, Great Britain, Spain and France seized Veracruz. What we do know certainly is that Mexico (and the Spanish Empire) became the leading source of silver, monetary reserves, and thus, of high-powered money. Railroads may not have been gateways to foreign dependency, as historians once argued, but there were limits to their ability to effect economic change, even internally. The Constitutionalist faction of Mexico's North was victorious in 1915-16. 1â2. 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